I lived in London for three years during my graduate studies in conservation, but I hadn't been back since I left last August. When the opportunity arose to present a poster on my fellowship research at a conference in Oxford, I jumped at the chance! While I was in the UK, I also conducted research on tiles at some of my favorite museums and visited old friends.
ICON Ceramics and Glass Conference
The 2017 ICON (Institute of Conservation) Ceramics and Glass Conference was held at Magdalen (pronounced "maudlin") College, Oxford from 7-8 September. The first day consisted of tours of the Ashmolean Museum, the oldest museum in the world. I hopped on the bus to Oxford from Heathrow Airport and hit the ground running.
Naturally, I managed to find tiles during a tour of the ceramics in the collection. The tiles on the left are Medieval floor tiles from Godstow Nunnery, where Henry II's mistress Rosamund Clifford was buried (my English history degree is finally paying off!). The Nunnery was founded in 1133. The tiles on the right are a little more familiar Delft tiles from the 17th and 18th centuries. They are held in place on the wall with Perspex (plexiglass) clips, which I thought was an intriguing mounting method.
While at the museum, I assuaged my jet lag with a wonderful cream tea (left). I didn't know how much I missed clotted cream until I ate these magnificent scones. Thursday night also was the night of the conference dinner at a very historic Pizza Express in a building that once housed a Tudor Inn, much like my favorite Pret a Manger, 26-27 Cornmarket Street, Oxford (right).
The conference talks began on Friday morning. There were many fascinating talks, from discoveries of historic fired on ceramic restorations to the conservation of incredibly thin unfired clay art objects. As part of the conference, I presented my poster about Vauxhall Fireplace.
Fittingly, I presented my poster near a Medieval fireplace.
One of the other poster presenters was a familiar face--my friend and fellow intern from my time at the British Museum, Amy Walsh. We took a walk around Oxford during our lunch break, enjoying the beautiful sights and sunshine!
After my whirlwind trip to Oxford, I took the train back to London. A few hours later I was at Kings Cross Station heading to Cambridge to visit my cousin and her husband (and their adorable cat).
Too soon I was on my way back to London. I decided to get all of my touristy things out of the way in one day. Enjoying not having to drive, I walked a 10 mile loop from Holborn, where I was staying, past St. Paul's Cathedral, the Tower of London and Tower Bridge, South Bank, the Tate Modern, and finally Big Ben, Parliament, Westminster Abbey then back to Holborn!
A month ago, I dragged myself out of my apartment at 3:30am to drive 5 hours to my favorite childhood vacation spot, Colonial Williamsburg. Thankfully, at 5:30am, D.C. traffic was a breeze! I was on my way to Virginia to meet with curators and conservators to discuss Williamsburg's two Delft tile fireplaces.
For those of you who aren't familiar, Colonial Williamsburg is a living history museum with historical reenactors. It interprets Virginia's capital city in the time around the Revolutionary War for modern audiences. Established in 1928, Colonial Williamsburg contains historic homes, restored storefronts, and reconstructed buildings from Williamsburg's colonial past.
the Colonial Revival and Colonial Williamsburg
Warren G. Harding won the election of 1920 on his campaign promise--a "return to normalcy," or a return to a romanticized golden age of America. This nationalist, isolationist rhetoric conjures a simplistic, rose-colored image of the past, indulging America's yearning to return to how things had been before they became entangled in foreign wars. As a more benign side-effect of the rise of nationalism, Americans also began to consider the importance of preserving significant historical landmarks. Previously, the 1876 Centennial Celebration in Philadelphia and the 1893 celebration of the 401st anniversary of Columbus's arrival, revived an interest in everything "patriotic" and "colonial." The so-called Colonial Revival lasted roughly from the 1880s to 1940.
The Colonial Revival renewed interest in Williamsburg's history. In the 1920s, residents of Williamsburg, like Reverend Dr. W.A.R. Goodwin, rector of Bruton Parish Church, as well as wealthy donors like the Rockefellers championed the preservation and revitalization of the colonial capital of Virginia, where many historic buildings had burned down, been demolished, or were in a state of disrepair and neglect. Besides its important colonial legacy, Williamsburg is home to the second oldest university in the United States, the College of William & Mary, founded in 1693 (and my secret dream school). The College boasts such illustrious alumni as Thomas Jefferson and two other presidents, as well as Jon Stewart. On its grounds rests the Wren Building, the oldest university building in America.
Colonial Williamsburg Rebuilt
In consultation with benefactors John D. Rockefeller, Jr. and his wife Abby Aldrich Rockefeller, W.A.R. Goodwin purchased the first building for the Williamsburg project in 1927--the George Wythe House. Other houses and buildings soon followed and the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation was created the following year.
One of the goals of the foundation involved rebuilding the iconic Governor's Palace, residence of Virginian governors until the capitol moved to Richmond in 1780. The palace burned to the ground in 1781. In 1930, Egyptologist Prentice Duell was drafted to conduct an archaeological excavation of the site where the palace had once stood. Amongst many other finds, the archaeological dig unearthed eight complete Delft tiles and many, many fragments. The Palace was rebuilt on its original foundations in the 1930s using the information gathered from excavations, period drawings, and Thomas Jefferson's blueprints for a proposed renovation.
Delft Tile Fireplaces
My trip to Colonial Williamsburg was prompted by, you guessed it, Delft tiles! The eight complete tiles found by Duell's team were incorporated into two fireplace surrounds in the reconstructed Governor's Palace. As part of my research trip, I had the amazing opportunity to go behind the scenes of the Governor's Palace before it opened to the public in the morning (thus the early start). Six purple manganese Biblical tiles from the original palace were mixed with tiles probably acquired from antiques dealers to create a complete fireplace surround. These adorn the fireplace in the "little middle room," a staging area for Williamsburg employees.
The two cobalt blue Delft tiles found by archaeologists were placed in the fireplace of the northeast upstairs bedroom, also supplemented by purchased tiles.
After my trip into the Governor's Palace, archaeological conservator, Emily Williams, led me on a behind-the-scenes tour of Williamsburg's conservation labs. While conservators with specialties found at Winterthur like objects, furniture, textiles, paper, and paintings work there, Williamsburg also has conservators of upholstery, musical instruments, and archaeological objects! It was a fantastic opportunity to see all these specialties in one building and the amazing objects and works of art that they work on. After my tour, I spent the rest of the afternoon wandering around Williamsburg, enjoying a ginger ale and ginger cake at the King's Arms and enjoying the local wildlife.
As discussed in last month's blog post, Winterthur and Williamsburg contain some of the most impressive examples of colonial American period rooms--especially of Delft tile fireplaces. The fireplace surrounds at both institutions were installed in the 1920s-1940s using unconventional and non-traditional mounting materials. Both of Williamsburg's fireplaces were installed using Portland Cement, similar to the Bertrand Room at Winterthur. Both Williamsburg and Winterthur help give modern viewers a sense of the colonial past. It was a wonderful experience to go behind-the-scenes at one of my most beloved childhood destinations. This kind of access to history is one of the perks of being a conservator! I'm so grateful to the conservators and curators who made this trip possible, especially Emily Williams, Amanda Keller, and Dani Jaworski.
Thanks for checking back! Tune in next month for a new blogpost and be sure to follow #WeirdTileoftheDay and #WeirdTileWednesday on Twitter! Post below with any questions, comments, or topic suggestions.
All images by author unless otherwise specified. For more information see:
Meticulous record-keeper Henry Francis du Pont documented each and every object he purchased in his daybook. Unfortunately for me, he recorded most of his 515 Delft fireplace tiles in his daybook and correspondence with antiques dealers as simply, “tile.” This renders research into the tiles’ provenience, or history, particularly challenging.
Previously, I discussed how I traced the actor and actress tiles in the Simsbury Room to the now demolished Berber House in Simsbury, Connecticut. My luck seems to have dried up after that initial success.
Tiles without a Fireplace: Sea Monsters in New York Bedroom
Henry Francis du Pont purchased a set of 34 Dutch sea monster tiles from New York art dealer, Edwin Jackson in 1940 for the New York Bedroom fireplace.
During 1960s renovations, the New York Bedroom was deinstalled and replaced with the Newport and Gidley Rooms. The tiles were removed and placed in storage, where they remained until 2016 when I began to treat some of them. Though I was able to find the specific dealer who sold the tiles to du Pont, I cannot find any information on where Jackson acquired the tiles. This has been the case so far with many of the tiles at Winterthur--my trail ends with dealers in 1920s-1940s New York City, Connecticut, and Philadelphia.
Even though I probably will never be able to definitively find where Winterthur's tiles actually came from, I still wondered how the tiles may have come into the collection. My search led me to the fascinating early 20th century phenomena of buying and selling architectural elements and even entire rooms from historic homes to decorate lavish mansions and create period rooms in museums like Winterthur. While this practice occurred concurrently with demolition of estates in America, the available literature is heavily focused on England.
England: The Lost Houses
Though I lived in England for three years, I never really thought about exactly how so many grand houses came to be managed by the National Trust until I watched Downton Abbey, Series 6 (I re-watched it in the name of research!). In this episode, the Granthams go to the auction of Mallerton, a neighboring country estate. Disturbed to see his friends falling on hard times, Lord Grantham is confused and worried (as usual) about the prospect of cultural change (illustrated below).
Though I primarily love it because it is soap opera set in Edwardian England, Downton Abbey does sometimes present actual historical events along the way! Some historians estimate that one in six of grand estates like the fictional Mallerton have been demolished since 1900--almost 2,000 in total. Why?
Origins of the Country Estate
Since at least the middle ages, the upper class of England included the aristocracy (dukes, marquesses, earls, viscounts and barons) and the landed gentry (baronets, knights, esquires, and gentlemen). Since only men who owned property could vote, the wealthy controlled the government of the country, especially after the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 shifted power away from the monarchy towards Parliament. Many members of the peerage held seats in the House of Lords. Consequently, MPs usually owned a house in London, for while Parliament was in session, as well as one or more grand estates in the countryside. These country estates generated income by charging tenants to live and farm their land. For example, the Dukes of Devonshire, the Cavendish family, owned two lavish estates in Derbyshire: Hardwick Hall, a Tudor mansion with its own rhyme (Hardwick Hall, more window than wall) and Chatsworth (famously featured in the 2005 adaptation of Pride and Prejudice) as well as a mansion in Picadilly, London.
Historic estates of the Duke of Devonshire. Left: Devonshire House in Picadilly, London was demolished in 1924; Center: Hardwick Hall, Derbyshire is managed by the National Trust; Right: Chatsworth, where the present-day Duke of Devonshire, Peregrine Cavendish, lives
Depression, Death Duties, and Increasing Suffrage, 1870s - 1910s
In the 1870s, these rental incomes stagnated, due to an agricultural slump caused by cheaper grain imported from America. This period in history saw the continuation of migration from the countryside to cities and emigration to US that began with the Industrial Revolution.
In the 1880s and 1890s, the complete governmental control of large landholders began to slip. In 1894-5 suffrage increased to 60% of males--any man paying a rent of over £10 per year was now eligible to vote. This still prevented all women and the working class in major cities from voting, but represented enough of a change that a series of laws were passed to limit the power of the aristocracy.
The 1894 Estate Duty (colloquially known as "Death Duties") levied taxes on personal property bequeathed by the deceased as part of a will. This was the first significant inheritance tax in the UK. Up to this point, immediate family members had not been charged taxes on inherited income. In 1907, Liberal PM H.H. Asquith also imposed a tax on income from investments.
Along with economic depression, these new Acts of Parliament had consequences for a class unaccustomed to budgeting and paying taxes. Like the fictional Lord Grantham, English lords looked to America for brides to save them from bankruptcy. Seeking aristocratic titles, American heiresses like Consuelo Vanderbilt eagerly moved across the pond. Vanderbilt married Charles Spencer-Churchill, 9th Duke of Marlborough (Winston Churchill's first cousin) in a socially advantageous, but loveless marriage. Her immense fortune saved the miraculous Blenheim Palace, near Oxford, from financial ruin and demolition (below). (Fun fact: Winston Churchill's mother, Jennie Jerome, was also an American heiress).
Effects of World Wars, 1910-1950
Prior to World War I, each wealthy family employed dozens of servants and farmers to keep their massive houses running. When Britain declared war in August of 1914, thousands of male servants joined or were drafted into military service. Female servants either stayed at their jobs, became nurses, or worked in factory jobs vacated by men. Many of these men and women who did not want to take up their old jobs as servants at the end of the war. As the popular post-World War I song went, "How you gonna keep em down on the farm now that they've seen Paree?" The move from country to city was especially marked by the 1950s. As inheritance tax rates shot up to near 80%, the rate of demolition increased exponentially.
Lack of income from the rent of tenant farmers, death duties, loss of a cheap labor force after the world wars, and a redistribution of power all contributed to the decision of many wealthy landowners to sell of one if not all of their country estates as well as their houses in London. Prior to the 1970s, once the contents of these houses were auctioned off, the houses would either be left, empty or demolished. From the 1970s onward, more and more houses were donated to preservation organizations like the National Trust and English Heritage.
Architectural Salvage and Resale
Antiques dealers in the United States and England capitalized on the wholesale gutting of these luxurious country houses. Not just objects, but entire rooms were packed off to American museums and mansions. In a particularly extreme case, American millionaire, Thomas C. Williams Jr., purchased Agecroft Hall, a 15th century Tudor mansion from Agecroft, Pendlebury, in 1925 and had it shipped to Richmond, Virginia, where he rebuilt and lived in it.
America's millionaires like H.F. du Pont and William Randolph Hearst bought up these architectural elements to enhance their fabulous mansions. Hearst revitalized and restored St. Donat's Castle in Wales with interiors from homes around Britain. du Pont mainly purchased material for his period rooms from American mansions. However, many of his ceramics, including the Delft tiles were probably procured by American dealers on trips to England.
Interpreting the Past: Period Rooms
Private collectors were not the only ones in the market for architecture. At the beginning of the 20th century, some of the world's greatest museums began to acquire these interior architectural elements. While museums in Europe primarily collected material from their own countries due to a surge in nationalism, American museums often collected rooms from around the world for educational purposes and to showcase the cultures of the world. These rooms were often cut down or added to in order to fit within the measurements of a certain gallery space. The decorations were often not original and sometimes, a mixture objects from different time periods reside in the same room, for aesthetic effect.
The room above from the Philadelphia Museum of Art is an early 17th century Dutch sitting room. However, the tiles in the fireplace tell a different story. They are from completely different sets and time periods. It's as if a curator in the 1920s said, "Eh, let's put them all together. They're all tiles! Who will notice?"
The tiles in the fireplaces at Winterthur were purchased in the 1920s-1940s and installed in this time period. When any object comes into the museum it is given an accession number. That number usually contains the year the object entered the collection (ie. 1929.0004.001). Most of the 515 tiles, though, were not numbered until 1969, a full 20-40 years after their acquisition. Some tiles were not given numbers until 2005! This owes to the fact that the tiles were seen as architectural elements rather than museum objects. Though the rooms at Winterthur are made of architecture salvaged from homes around America, most of these interiors do not have accession numbers.
The tiles in Winterthur's rooms often do not match the time period being interpreted by the rest of the interiors, furniture, paintings, and objects. For example, in Readbourne Parlor (above), the tulip tiles are early 17th century Dutch, while the furniture and other decorative elements are from the Queen Anne period in early 18th century England.
While some tiles were probably removed from homes with changing fireplace fashions of the early 19th century or simply covered over with marble facades, the Winterthur tiles were presumably sold wholesale as part of the architectural elements of their original rooms. This practice ground to a halt in the 1970s and 1980s with renewed interest in the conservation of England's and America's cultural heritage. However, the architectural treasures and entire rooms can be enjoyed today by museum-goers in museums around the world (I know they're one of my favorite parts of museums).
Thanks for checking back! I enjoyed this excuse to use my history degree and revisit Downton Abbey, ha! Tune in next month for a new blogpost and be sure to follow #WeirdTileoftheDay and #WeirdTileWednesday on Twitter! If you have any questions, comments, or suggestions for topics, post them below!
For more information see:
The lack of a blog post for the past 2 months (!) owes to my participation in the Inorganic Block with the first year WUDPAC (Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation) masters students. In block, the students (and I) learned more about metals, stone, ceramic, and glass conservation. I also subjected them to 3 hours of Delft tile history, manufacture, and conservation. In the meantime, I've still been treating and researching the tiles. Today's blog post is about my months-long struggle to identify the iconography of this unique tile and color match its gray background.
The tile above was probably manufactured somewhere between 1600 and 1700 in the Netherlands. An artist painted the decoration onto the unfired tin-glazed surface with a manganese glaze, which turned purple when fired. While I know how the tile was made, its iconography is more elusive. Winterthur's database lists the tile as "merman grasping a nude woman trailing a scarf." Other similar tiles are listed by dealers and museums as "Merman and Fortuna" (below left) or simply "Neptune" (below right). While sea monsters are a common motif on Delft tiles, this particular decoration is relatively rare.
When I searched for inspiration sources in other media, I quickly realized that the tile is actually meant to represent a merman, or triton and a sea nymph, or nereid.
Examples of tritons abducting nereids in art range from a niello print (made with silver, copper, and lead sulfides) from Renaissance Italy to a bronze fountain at the Mirbach Palace in Bratislava.
However, while the nereid on this tile does not look particularly happy, she appears to be standing on the back of the triton rather than being carried off. The mosaic below from the Bardo National Museum in Tunis depicts sea nymphs riding on the backs of tritons and other sea creatures. They all have flowing scarves similar to the one worn by the nereid on the Delft tile. There is also a reference in Dionysiaca, an epic poem by Nonnus, to Thetis, the nereid mother of Achilles, riding into battle "on the green hip of a Triton with broad beard" (6. 257 ff). Perhaps the nymph on Winterthur's tile is wearing her battle face.
Once I'd discovered what the tile was actually depicting, it was time to start treatment!
The tile's major condition issues include:
I started off by removing the plaster fill. Once removed, I saw that the previous restorer had keyed, or carved, into the ceramic body in order to make the plaster adhere better. This is something that modern conservators do not do, because it damages the original material. Bits of plaster was also stuck in all the grooves and had to be painstakingly removed under a microscope.
The staining along the proper right edge of the tile did not respond to cleaning with water and other common conservation solvents like acetone. Because of this, I conducted cleaning tests with chelators, or materials that remove heavy metal staining.
1% EDTA (disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) in deionized water buffered to a pH of 8.5 with sodium borate was determined to be the most effective chelator for this particular stain. The solution was applied to the proper right edge of the tile in 5% agarose gel to reduce the yellow stained area (below).
After two rounds of application of a chelator, carbamide peroxide in laponite gel was applied as a combination bleach/rinse over a Japanese tissue paper (Gampi Usuyo) barrier and allowed to dry. This process ensures that no acid is left on the surface of the tile, as it could potentially harm the ceramic.
Though the stain was not completely removed, it was reduced enough to not distract from the decorative quality of the tile (below).
I filled the areas of lost glaze with Flugger and began the arduous process of in-painting. As I've said my previous blogpost about inpainting, sometimes you magically match the color right away. Sometimes, though it can take weeks to get the color right. That was the case with this tile...
I started with a base color that was relatively close to the color of the background.
I then began inpainting the merman's tail and the waves with acrylic paint, using the tile from the Museum of London in the previous section as an example. I also attempted to draw in the crazing lines...to moderate success. Even using my smallest brush, the lines appeared too wide.
I was unhappy with how much the fill stood out, so I decided to try and fix part of my in-painting...
On my sixth attempt, I finally decided to just rip out the parts I wasn't happy with and start over.
I should have started over ages ago! After months of struggle, the tile is finally finished. The crazing lines and my reconstruction of the tile's original decoration blend in well.
Thanks for checking back! Be sure to check Twitter for updates under #WeirdTileoftheDay and #WeirdTileWednesday. Tune in soon as I delve into my struggle to find where the tiles came from!
For more information see:
Photos by author unless otherwise stated.
Most if not all of the Delft-tiled fireplaces at Winterthur are probably not original to the house. The Museum's Registration Department holds copies of Henry Francis du Pont's daybooks, journals where he meticulously recorded each and every antique and piece of art that he purchased. By comparing entries in his daybook to receipts from antique dealers, I can hypothesize that du Pont bought all of the tiles in his collection sometime between 1920 and 1940. These dates also correspond to when many of the rooms in the house with tiled fireplaces were installed.
Tiles are traditionally attached to fireplaces using a combination of a mortar (a thin sort of cement) and lime plaster. However, when the Winterthur tiled fireplaces were installed from the late 1920s to the early 1940s, builders bypassed the mortar, instead using gypsum plaster and a creative variety of "modern" materials.
The rather culturally insensitive Chinoiserie tiles from the 1750s in the Bertrand Room were installed using Portland cement in the 1930s. According to tile expert, Lesley Durbin of The Jackfield Conservation Studio, Portland cement is an inappropriate material to install Delft tiles. By their composition, tin-glazed earthenwares like Delft tiles are susceptible to the efflorescence of soluble salts. Soluble salts are normally held in the ceramic body, but when exposed to high humidity, they crystalize on the surface, damaging tiles and causing glaze to spall off. Portland cement also is much harder than tin-glazed ceramics, making the prospect of ever removing tiles from this fireplace daunting.
The tiles in the Patuxent fireplace surround were probably attached with DUCO® cement is a fast-drying, cellulose nitrate-based commercial cement. When viewed under long wave ultraviolet light, the grout and mortar fluoresce a light greenish yellow, a classic indicator of cellulose nitrate. The adhesive tends to discolor overtime, giving the grout between these tiles a dark brown stained color.
The front of this innocuous-looking tile masks a mysterious secret. When flipped over....
...whatever this is is revealed. This tile is in storage at Winterthur-- not mounted in a fireplace--but this tile was too crazy to not include in this post. It was coated in a cellulose nitrate adhesive, then a black resin, and finally 16 adhesive tabs were attached over top--all of which retain their plastic barrier layers. Why and when this was applied remains a mystery...
Exploratory Excavation of Vauxhall Fireplace
Since building records are eluding me at present, the only way to definitively know how the fireplaces were constructed is to perform exploratory excavations. Vauxhall fireplace on the fourth floor of the museum was damaged in a flood in the 1980s. While it appears structurally stable, the plaster surrounds are powdery and delaminating (below, left). The tiles show evidence of soluble salt damage such as cracking and spalling (below, right). Chemical spot tests reveal that sulphates, common in gypsum plaster (hydrated calcium sulphate, CaSO4•H2O), are the probable culprit.
Part of my fellowship project may include dismantling the tiles in Vauxhall fireplace. This would allow me to treat the tiles in the conservation lab (much more ergonomic working conditions as you shall see). In order to conclusively determine how the tiles were mounted in the fireplace, my supervisor, Associate Objects Conservator and Assistant Affiliated Professor, Lauren Fair and I decided to remove one tile from the lower proper right corner of the fireplace.
During my internship year, I participated in a project at the British Museum removing Medieval floor tiles from a panel (above). Based on my experience, Lauren and I decided that using a hammer and chisel was the best course of action to remove tiles from the Vauxhall fireplace.
After a two-hour delay due to snow, we began the removal process! To protect ourselves from the plaster dust and chips, we wore dust masks, protective goggles, and nitrile gloves and vacuumed dust and debris as we went to minimize disruption to the rest of the objects in the room. To remove the tile, we decided to cut a channel behind the lower tile using a stone-carving hammer and chisel. This was accomplished by sitting or lying on the floor and crouching to strike the plaster at the proper height. Because the tiles are so tightly stacked, the only way to access the tile was from the proper left side. When we finally chipped most of the plaster away, we realized that the tile above had also become detached.
To Deinstall or not to Deinstall...
When the tiles were removed, we could clearly see that the fireplace had been constructed of brick covered in about an inch of plaster (above, center). The tiles were directly stuck into the plaster without a barrier to protect them from the movement of soluble salts. We still haven't decided whether or not we're going to remove all of the tiles to conserve them. A further consideration of the risks and rewards of deinstall needs to be undertaken. Stay tuned!
Thanks for checking back! Be sure to check Twitter for updates under #WeirdTileoftheDay and #WeirdTileWednesday. Tune in on March 15th as I delve into my struggle to find where the tiles came from!
For more information see:
Durbin, Lesley. 18th Century Delft Tiles: English and Dutch Tin Glazed Tiles Circa 1650-1790. http://www.jackfieldconservation.co.uk/18th-century-delft-tiles/
Photos by author unless otherwise stated.
What is Inpainting?
When we left off last month, 1969.4732.012 had been filled with Flügger and was ready to be painted.
But filling is not the hard part--especially on a flat object! The challenge comes when you try to inpaint, or match the color of the surrounding original material. The theory of inpainting is that the color of the filled area should not attract the viewer's eye like a white fill would (below, left). Generally with archaeological material from the British Museum, inpainting takes the form of toning the color of a fill to a neutral tone (below, center and right). Sometimes this backfires as in the case of a fill done on the Elgin Amphora before it came into the British Museum's collection. The bright, orange "neutral" tone draws the eye to the fill rather than the original material (below, center).
In decorative arts collections like those at Winterthur, if the design is repeated or if other examples exist, it is sometimes replicated. The curator and I decided to go for a decorative arts approach to the tiles. They do not have any known provenience and many of their designs are well-documented. Their main significance in the collection is an aesthetic one.
Inpainting should never cover any of the original material. When it does, it is called overpainting. Some restorers in the past painted over the original material in order to create a seamless color. This can have disastrous results when the paint ages poorly (see below). The red rectangles indicate the area of the tile that has been filled. The person who originally restored this tile painted over the fills and onto the glazed surface of the tile. At one time, this probably blended in very well. However, the cellulosic paint has discolored. As you will see, modern conservators use of inpainting can be almost as effective as overpainting at restoring the aesthetic integrity of works of art--but in a much more ethical and controlled way.
Pigments, Media, and Other Materials
Some conservators prefer inpainting with dry, ground pigments, like this beautiful (and functional) display in the Winterthur Objects Conservation Lab. These are finely ground and applied to fills in a medium, such as Primal WS-24 or Golden Acrylics Porcelain Restoration Glaze.
I've only really used them to make epoxy color fills for porcelain. These fills are very permanent so any guesswork with matching the color is best avoided.
I personally prefer using Golden Acrylic paints, because they are what I'm most familiar with. A major disadvantage of working with acrylic paint is that it dries slightly darker. This is especially challenging when trying to exactly match the color of a large area of fill!
The last crucial materials for inpainting are the proper brushes (I especially like sable). I like using a Size 4 round brush and a 1/8" flat brush (a) for large areas of fill (as large as then can be on a 5 x 5 inch tile). Sizes 1 and 00 or 000 brushes are great for smaller fills or inpainting detailed designs (b). Brush (c) is a cheap Size 1 synthetic brush that I destroyed. It's great for replicating the spots and imperfections of a surface.
Inpainting Dutch and English Delft tiles
For the two tiles I will present, I've been experimenting with a mix of acrylic paints and Primal WS-24, an acrylic dispersion. When dried, Primal has a hard, clear, glaze-like appearance. It can also be sanded with MicroMesh, fine-grade sandpaper to make the surface even more even.
Sometimes the conservation gods allow you to color match on the first try. This 17th century Dutch tile only took an hour to inpaint. But this is hardly the norm. Sometimes it takes hours and hours to get it right.
If you were asked what color the English Delft tile below is, you would probably say white, right? In theory, yes. But when compared with the bright white of the detachable plaster fills (below, right), it appears much more gray.
Matching this color involved mixing 8 different colors of paint including: Titan Buff, Titanium White, Paynes Gray, Cobalt Blue, Hansa Yellow Light, Yellow Ochre, Alizarin Crimson, and Raw Umber. As per advice from my high school paintings teacher (thanks Ms. Mortl!), I never use black paint. I added the different colors in very small amounts to Primal to match the tin-glaze. This process takes the longest--especially for such a large area of fill. The slightest difference in color will really stand out and distract the viewer.
Once the correct color is made (after many many many attempts), it was applied to the fills and allowed to dry for a week. The paint layers had dried differently, leaving a slightly raised and uneven surface. You can see in the photo on the left that this caused the fills to appear darker. To remedy this, I polished the painted surfaces with grades of MicroMesh up to 12000. This gave the tile a seamless surface, allowing the tile to be seen as it once would have looked, while allowing careful observers to see that it had been filled.
Thanks for checking back! Be sure to check Twitter for updates under #WeirdTileoftheDay and #WeirdTileWednesday. Tune in in two weeks as I discuss how tiles were once mounted in fireplaces!
In cold climates, like in Northern Europe and North America, fire was often the primary source of warmth. Control of fire and the ability to bring it inside one's dwelling was paramount to survival.
However, having fire indoors was also incredibly dangerous. Though the City of London banned wooden chimneys in 1419, buildings continued to be constructed of wood until after the Great Fire in 1666.
Winterthur Museum contains 59 fireplaces, some of which are merely facades. Of those, 11 have Delft tile surrounds of British or Dutch origin. To maintain consistency with the pieces in the collection, this post will focus primarily on the history of British and Dutch fireplaces in Europe and colonial North America.
Though they were born out of utilitarian necessity, fireplaces came to symbolize comfort, often showing off the wealth and taste of homeowners.
Roman Britain: Central Heating
Writing around 7 B.C., Greek-born Roman philosopher Strabo writes in his Geography of Britain: it is "the home of men who are complete savages and lead a miserable existence because of the cold" (II.5.8). Indeed the gray climate of Britain must have been a shock to Roman soldiers from the southern reaches of the empire. After conquering parts of the island by 47 A.D. after nearly a century of attempt, Roman architects and engineers built hypocausts. A type of underfloor heating, a hypocaust from old Londinium's Billingsgate Bath House can be found under a modern office building (below). The basic principle consists of an elevated floor under which hot air is blown from a furnace. As this was labor-intensive to maintain, large villas and bath houses most commonly employed hypocausts.
The "dark ages"
When the Romans left Britain around 410 A.D., seemingly modern conveniences like central heating went with them, not to be seen again until the 1850s. In the new cultural movement, germanic tribes like the Anglo-Saxons built structures with large, great halls heated by a central hearth, à la Beowulf or scenes from the TV show Vikings (a guilty pleasure). The smoke was moderately successfully drawn through an open hole in ceiling. Presumably these spaces were dark and smoky and one can only imagine the problems that rain or snow would cause. These central hearths were used for cooking as well as warmth.
Origins of Proper Ventilation
In the middle ages, around 1200, Norman fireplaces, with proto- and actual chimneys represented a significant improvement on open air central hearths. The "Norman fireplace" from the Tower of London is a rare surviving example of this type.
This Norman fireplace probably had a hood, made of wood and cloth over it to direct smoke up the flue and outside. The fireplace at the Tower of London is carved directly into the thick stone wall. This design is similar to a "jambless" (without jambs, or sides) fireplace which was commonly used by the Dutch both in Europe and in the early American colonies. These more often employed chimneys, as the walls of colonial houses generally were not 10 feet deep.
A Variety of Uses: inglenook
The "inglenook" fireplace was the next innovation. An archetypal specimen can be seen in daily use at Hampton Court Palace. Built in the early 1500s, this stone and brick fireplace is the epitome of a utilitarian Tudor fireplace. The fireplace is recessed into the wall, creating a chamber in which to cook. A chimney vastly improved working conditions and smoke was no longer as much of an issue. In an added bonus, spices, salt, and other foods that were susceptible to mold and moisture could be kept in the inglenook fireplace to keep them dry. This was especially useful in the humid climate of England.
in the rest of the Home
Though their main purpose still was to provide heat, fireplaces in public areas of the home were generally more decorative. Tiled fireplaces did not come into prominence until the 1650s, but they remained popular in North America through the early 1800s. Early fireplaces incorporated Dutch tiles with hand-painted scenes, flowers, and sea monsters. When English transfer-print tiles blazed onto the scene in the 1750s, the cheaper tiles were all the rage in the new world. Tiled fireplaces, rather than those with ostentatious marble, gave the middle class a cost-effective way to display their wealth and taste.
Changing fashions in the late Georgian era compelled homeowners to replace their tiled fireplaces with marble surrounds and long wooden mantles to display collectibles. Though tiles remain in fireplaces in some historic homes, the vast majority of them were either covered with a different material like marble, or removed.
Tiles made a brief comeback in the Victorian and Art Nouveau periods, but many of these surrounds were removed in the following decades. A notable exception is this neo-Gothic fireplace in Cardiff Castle (below), which is impressive, if anything.
The invention of radiators by Franz San Galli in 1855 made fireplaces mainly decorative in middle and upper class homes by the turn of the century. Even though they are no longer needed to provide heat, many modern houses still have fireplaces (even if they are electric).
Thanks for checking back! Be sure to check Twitter for updates under #WeirdTileoftheDay and #WeirdTileWednesday. Tune in next week as I discuss how tiles were once mounted in fireplaces (preview below).
For more information see:
Henry J. Kauffman, 1972. The American Fireplace: Chimneys, Mantelpieces, Fireplaces & Accessories. New York: Thomas Nelson Inc.
Trudy West, 1976. The Fireplace in the Home. North Pomfret, Vermont: David & Charles.
Photos by author unless otherwise stated.
This post will be a bit shorter than the others because of the holidays! However, I wanted to share an update on the progress of the treatment of 1969.4732.012., one of the tiles from the "sea monster" set.
This tile and others decorated with various "sea monsters" were once part of the fireplace in the "New York Bedroom" at Winterthur. However, the room and the fireplace were both de-installed in the 1960s. The tiles were removed, but huge remnants of plaster (outlined in purple, below) were left on the backs of the tiles. Areas on the front surface of the tile had chipped off and become lost (outlined in red, below).
Prior to starting any conservation work, I consulted Senior Curator of Ceramics and Glass Leslie Grigsby to discuss treatment goals for this tile. These included: removing the plaster mounting material, removing yellowing fills and replacing them, and in-filling chips in the glaze to restore aesthetic integrity to the tile.
Picking away at Plaster
After testing a variety of methods, I determined that the easiest way to remove the thick plaster (2 cm in areas!) was to create channels in it using a small file. I then could chip sections away using a scalpel. This work was done under an elephant trunk, or extractor, to reduce the amount of dust in the air while I was working. I also wore a surgical mask to prevent breathing in fine plaster dust. As you can see below, this is messy work!
Removing the FIlls
A historic restorer had used an epoxy covered in yellowed paint to fill chips in the edges of the tile (below, left). This adhesive had turned dark brown and was brittle and flaking (below, middle). I removed it by softening it in acetone and using a scalpel to pick it off (below, right).
After coating the chipped areas with an acrylic adhesive to protect the underlying ceramic, I began filling the missing chips using Flügger, a conservation-grade acrylic spackle (and my absolute favorite thing).
After sanding and perfecting my fills, I will in-paint them with acrylic paints to match the surrounding glaze. This color is proving tricky to replicate as it contains small flecks of brown, gray, yellow, red, and blue rather than being one solid color. Stay tuned!
Thanks for checking back! Be sure to check Twitter for updates under #WeirdTileoftheDay and #WeirdTileWednesday. Tune in January 18th to explore an incredibly brief history of western fireplaces.
The Simsbury Room (above) is a very small room located on the 8th floor in the main house, off of Spatterware Hall and near an amazing collection of children's toys (below).
Installed in 1940, the wooden interiors and fireplace tiles came from a house that once stood at 570 Hopmeadow Street in Simsbury, Connecticut (Springman & Lahue 2011, 41). The house was built around 1765 by a Thomas Berber. It was dismantled in 1925 after the death of its last owner. This is the first time I have been able to trace any set of tiles back to their original location!
The tiles in the Simsbury Room are red enamel transfer-printed tin-glaze earthenware tiles from Liverpool. They were manufactured by Sadler and Green from approximately 1777 to 1780. The images on the tiles were taken from prints found in various publications including Bell's Shakespeare and Bell's British Theatre. Both publications featured the most popular plays of the late 1700s alongside prints of iconic actors and actresses.
The actors and actresses pictured were not all contemporaries, even though they are all dressed in clothing typical of the late 18th century. All of the actors and actresses performed in London, especially in the theatre districts of Covent Garden and Haymarket from the 1670s-1770s.
The set in the Simsbury Room does not include the entire set of actors and actress tiles. More examples in both red and black transfer print can be found in museums around the world (below). There are however very few examples of actor/actress tiles installed in fireplaces in historic houses.
The men and women pictured on the tiles represent the most famous actors and actresses of the late 17th to late 18th centuries. While all of their stories are fascinating, I will briefly discuss four of the most famous in their day--whose stories may or may not have stood the test of time.
Elizabeth Barry (1658-1713) was one of the most famous actresses of the Restoration theatre renaissance in London. Theatre had been banned by Cromwell's puritanical Republic (1640-1660), but was restored by the "Merrie Monarch," Charles II in 1660 when he was restored to the throne.
Another change in theatrical conventions, women rather than teenage boys played female roles on-stage. In this tile, Barry plays the character of Sir Henry Wildair, a so-called "pants" or "breeches" role in which a woman played a young male character. This practice is especially common in operas with mezzo-sopranos often portraying teenage boys for comic effect.
Barry was the lover of John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester--one of Charles II's closest friends. Their story is the focus of a current production of The Libertine at the Royal Haymarket Theatre in London. Though contemporaries apparently regarded Barry as "the ugliest Woman" in real life, they promulgated she was "the finest Woman in the World upon the Stage." (A Comparison Between the Two Stages, 1702).
Macklin appears on two tiles in the Simsbury fireplace. On the left he is in the character of Sir Gilbert Wrangle from The Refusal by Colley Cibber. On the right he portrays his iconic role as Shylock, which made him a household name. King George II even apparently lost sleep over Macklin's especially dark and evil interpretation of the moneylender.
Samuel Foote (1720-1777) was an acting student of Charles Macklin's. In his 40s he lost a leg in a riding accident. Though he still continued to act, he primarily focused his efforts into being the producer and eventual owner of the Haymarket Theatre. He also wrote biting satire of his contemporaries, earning the moniker "The English Aristophenes," after the Athenian comic playwright.
In the tile above he plays the rather dubiously named "Fondlewife" from William Congreve's The Old Bachelor.
Finally, Mary Ann Yates (née Graham, 1728-1787) was considered the premiere British dramatic actress from shortly after her debut in the 1750s until she retired at 55. According to contemporaries, she was also a first class diva, often showing up late to rehearsals
On the tiles above, she is pictured as Lady Townley from Sir John Vanburgh's The Provok'd Husband and as Jane Shore, one of the many mistresses of Edward IV of England, in Nicholas Rowe's Jane Shore.
Thanks for checking back! Be sure to check Twitter for updates under #WeirdTileoftheDay and #WeirdTileWednesday. Tune in next week for a brief update on some of the treatments I've been working on (preview below). :)
For more information see:
Encyclopedia Britannica for biographical information about the actors listed above.
Springman, Mary Jane and Lahue, Alan, 2011. Images of America: Simsbury. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing.
An Incredibly Brief History of Ceramic Repairs
As long as humans have been making ceramics, they have tried to find ways to fix these objects that shatter when dropped. In antiquity, this most often took the form of restoring function to a broken pot. This was accomplished in a variety of ways. Sometimes sherds (fragments of a pot) would be put together by drilling holes in the ceramic and using some sort of material, like plant fiber or metal wire, to tie two pieces together. From around the 1800s onward, restorers and menders began utilizing adhesives like animal glues to readhere ceramics. They also made "fills" out of materials like clay or plaster to fill missing pieces in the ceramic. Like today, early restorers used paints to disguise these fills. Even though modern conservators use similar techniques to their historic counterparts, the materials we now use have changed.
The materials these historic restorers used don't necessarily age well. Paints, adhesives, and other materials used in the past by conservators and others to repair broken ceramics deteriorated with age (see above!). Even materials used in the past 50 years are now discoloring and failing, necessitating the intervention of a conservator.
Repairs from anytime before the present are commonly deemed historic repairs/restorations. The tiles in Winterthur's collection display a variety of fascinating, innovative, and sometimes disfiguring repairs. Some of the most interesting examples include repairs with metal rivets, discolored paint, and strange fill material.
Rivets? Repairs with metal
While remnants of natural resins, like bitumen can be found as adhesives on ancient ceramics, evidence exists for the repair of highly valuable ceramics with metal as far back as 7000 B.C. The Ancient Greeks made grooves between two sherds to be joined. Lead was poured into the grooves to bind them together. Nineteenth century restorers also used lead "solders" to repair ceramics, but they introduced a new technological advancement--iron rivets--to ceramics restoration.
To create the repair, holes were drilled into the ceramic body at a 15 degree angle with a hand drill. Rivets, essentially metal staples, were fit into the holes to re-introduce tension into a broken vessel. Repairs with rivets can still be found on ceramics today, those made out of iron alloys have a tendency to rust.
Conservators closer to the present began removing these "unsightly" rivets. The Liverpool tile above was treated by Philadelphia restoration firm H.A. Eberhardt and Son, probably around 1950. The restorer removed the rivets on the back of the tile and filled in the space left behind with plaster. He or she then overpainted the front of the tile to hide the repair. Over time, the paint has yellowed (above, left).
Overpaint and Overfill
In their quest to create seamless restorations, early conservators often overfilled and overpainted ceramics. The edges of the green enamel, transfer-print tile below were probably ground down when it was installed in a fireplace. A conservator at some point in the past decided to create large areas of fill to restore the tile to its original dimensions.
Areas outlined in red demarcate the historic fill, which was made with an unknown, yellowed, spongy material. Blue areas show remnants of plaster left over from when the tile was mounted in a fireplace. The overpaint on the front of the tile has yellowed significantly. When it was restored, it would have been the same white as the central oval to disguise the fill material--now it clearly shows where the fill is located.
In another example of overpainting, these chinoiserie tiles are installed in the Bertrand room fireplace. The Michaelmas Daisy corner elements are original on the tile on the left, but have been remade on tile on the right. A historic restorer put plaster over the original surface of the tile and replicated the border and corners in paint. He or she painted over everything but the figure.
Some may see these historic repairs as disfiguring, but when we as conservators "re-conserve" artifacts, we remove significant evidence of the history of that object and destroy evidence of the fascinating history of conservation. After consultation, some curators and conservators choose to remove historical repairs that are distracting (ie. yellowed paint or adhesive) or actively causing damage to objects (ie. rusting rivets that are no longer holding the ceramic together). Whether they are taken out or not, it is best practice to photograph and document these interesting and inventive historical repairs. Same as now, early conservators, repairers, and restorers were doing the best with the materials they had to fix the objects in their care.
I will be starting to treat some of the tiles in this post in the coming weeks! Because the goals of treatment mainly involve restoring the aesthetic integrity of the tiles, I will remove the discolored overpaint and historic fills on the tiles above. However, I have made sure to record each step of my conservation treatment so the information about historic fills is accessible to future conservators. Tune in December 14th to learn about a series of tiles featuring 18th century actors in the Simsbury Room fireplace!
For more information, see:
Susan Buys and Victoria Oakley, 1993. Conservation of Ceramic Artefacts. London: Butterworth and Heinemann.
Isabelle Garachon, 2010. Old Repairs of China and Glass. The Rijksmuseum Bulletin 58/1, 35-54.
Stephen Koob, 1998. Obsolete Fill Materials Found on Ceramics. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 37/1, 49-67.
Winterthur Postgraduate Fellow in Objects Conservation